What are Leadership Styles?
The leadership style defines a leader. Of course, it always depends on the person and also on the company. Leadership styles are extremely important components of human resource management.
The individual leadership styles, which are explained below, are rather model-like and rarely occur in their actual form. As already mentioned, the reason lies in the situation. Qualifications, experience, demands, for example, influence the leadership style, so that mixed forms of leadership styles often emerge.
Leadership styles according to Max Weber
About 100 years ago, sociologist Max Weber asked himself the question, “Why do people allow themselves to be controlled? On the basis of the reasons he identified, the following leadership styles emerged:
Autocratic leadership style
The leader is authoritarian. This style gives the leader full power and obliges the subordinate employees to absolute obedience. There is a lack of any personal relationship here.
Patriarchal leadership style
With this leadership style, the leader’s power does not change, but the subordinates have a certain amount of trust in the “patriarch”. This is also referred to as a paternal style of leadership. The leader has the well-being of his employees at heart, he cares for them. His position is defined by experience, age and the like. This style of leadership is rarely found nowadays. It is most likely to be found in small, medium-sized companies.
Charismatic leadership style
A high degree of empathy and a charismatic manner make the leader a role model. This enables him to demand a great deal from his employees. Despite the role model function, the relationship is also one-sided here.
Bureaucratic leadership style
This style of leadership is based on laws, rules and structures that determine the work process. The power is not held by an individual, but by the structure. This bureaucracy allows less flexibility than other leadership styles, which is why it is difficult to react in crisis situations.
Leadership styles according to Kurt Lewin
Another important representative – with regard to leadership styles – is the psychologist Kurt Lewin. He divided the following leadership styles:
Authoritarian leadership style
= the counterpart to Weber’s autocratic leadership style
Democratic leadership style
This leadership style is also called cooperative leadership style. The leader involves the staff in various decisions. Open discussions and joint decision-making are the order of the day. This leadership style has a positive effect on the employees – performance, motivation, work ethic and the willingness to bring in new ideas are promoted. The manager also sees a great advantage in the employees’ participation, namely because of the workload reduction.
The only disadvantage is that the decision-making process takes more time in the democratic management style, as several opinions and ideas are taken into account.
Laissez-faire leadership style
This management style is characterised by absolute self-determination of the employees. Tasks and organisational structure are chosen by the employees themselves. The supervisor does not intervene.
Through this style of leadership, employees learn to work independently and also to make their own decisions. Possible disadvantage – it could lead to chaos or group disputes.
So which leadership style is the best?
After weighing all the advantages and disadvantages, one might think that the democratic leadership style is the most optimal. However, as mentioned at the beginning, one cannot generalise a single leadership style. Many factors are involved, from which a leadership style then develops, namely a situational leadership style – the most ideal leadership style then emerges depending on the situation.